Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Performance Analysis Of Election Algorithm Computer Science Essay

Performance Analysis Of Election Algorithm Computer Science Essay Distributed systems are the systems consisting of multiple processors that connect through a network to communicate. To manage the communication between different nodes and the exchange of data between them, a leader among them is required. In our project we implement the various Election algorithms for choosing the leader in Distributed Systems thus solving the coordinator election problem. We are also comparing the performance of each of these election algorithms. First we implemented the Election algorithms using the message passing interface(MPI). Then we measured and compared the performance of each of these election algorithms and simulated the results. Finally we modified the distributed leader election algorithm to suit the mobile ad-hoc networks. Key Words: Distributed Systems Election algorithms Unidirectional ring algorithm Lelanns algorithm Chang Roberts algorithm Bidirectional ring Leader election Mobile Adhoc Networks Introduction Distributed system It is a group of processors where the memory or a clock is not shared. Every processor has its own associated memory and the information is exchanged through communication networks. Distributed algorithm A distributed algorithm is an algorithm run on such a distributed system assuming the non-existence of central coordinator in these systems. So these algorithms require one process to act as a coordinator. There is no way to select one of them to be leader if all the processes are alike without different characteristics. One of the processes has to take this special responsibility, no matter which process takes it. This problem in which a leader has to be elected is termed as the coordinator election problem that is how to choose a process among the different processors to make it a central coordinator. Election algorithm An election algorithm is used to solve the coordinator election problem in these distributed systems. Any election algorithm must be a distributed algorithm by the nature of the coordinator election problem. The most important feature in election algorithm is it assumes every process has a Unique ID. It votes a process from among the different processors which can act as the initiator, sequencer and monitor in detecting and solving situations like Deadlock, Mutual Exclusion etc. Thus electing a leader process has become a major issue in wired and ad hoc networks. The goal of election algorithm is to see that when an election begins it ends with all processes by an agreement as who has to be the new coordinator. ELECTION ALGORITHM ON RINGS : A ring is formed by the processes in ring algorithm. In this each process sends only messages to the next process in the ring. It can be classified into two categories Unidirectional Bidirectional The messages are sent only in one direction in unidirectional and in both directions in Bidirectional ring algorithms. To compare the performance of these algorithms, the different criteria taken into consideration are Total number of messages passed Complexity of the messages used Time elapsed by the algorithm 2. Implementation Software We have used the message passing interface (MPI) for implementing our algorithms which are discussed below. It is a standard specification for communication through messages among different processes. It is independent of any language. It is used in parallel computing to write programs for group and point to point communication between nodes. We used the C language to implement the election algorithms. The MPIs routines are directly callable in C. The main MPI calls used in our program are MPI_Init: Before communicating, all instances of the code should call this so as to prepare the MPI implementation for the communications environment. MPI_Finalize: For exiting the communication, this is called by all the instances of the code. MPI_Comm_size: To learn about the number of processors which are using MPI environment to communicate, this routine is called. MPI_Comm_rank: Each of this process assigns an integer to the communicating process. MPI_Send: To send a message to another process, this is called. MPI_Recv: This call allows to receive a message from a process. 3. Unidirectional Ring Algorithms The ring algorithm consists of processes arranged in the form of a ring consisting of a token. The token is passed between processes and the process which has the ring can send a message. The election problem can be implemented using the ring algorithms Lelanns algorithm Chang Roberts algorithm 3.1 LeLanns algorithm In this we assume that all the processes are physically and logically ordered. In LeLanns algorithm whenever the coordinator is lost, the initiator sends a token to the other processes in the ring by adding its id. Nodes cannot initiate any messages once they receive the token. After circulating the token, if the process receives back its id then it is chosen to be the leader since it knows that others cannot become leaders as it knows all the ids of the other processes and it has the least id. The message complexity of LeLanns algorithm is O(N2). ALGORITHM: Step 1: begin Step 2: send the token to neighbours with id of current process as i Step 3: add current process id j and forward to neighbours Step 4: if process P receives back its id then Step 5: leader is P Step 6: else return null Step 7: end Message Complexity: Every initiator sends N messages. So the worst case time complexity is N2. The algorithm is implemented using MPI and the message complexity and time complexity given by the MPI program is No.of processes Messages Real time User time System time 5 25 1.195 0.025 0.023 10 100 1.292 0.027 0.024 15 225 1.446 0.030 0.027 20 400 1.551 0.034 0.030 25 625 1.654 0.036 0.030 Table 1: LeLanns algorithm 3.2 Chang Roberts algorithm This is similar to lelanns algorithm but with a little change. When a process receives a token with an id greater than the current process id, it drops that particular token as that process cannot be a leader . Hence it forwards the token with an id less that itself. In this way it saves time by discarding the unwanted messages. The worst case message complexity of Chang Roberts algorithm is O(N2) and the average case message complexity is O(N logN). ALGORITHM: Step 1 : send message with identifier = I to other processes Step 2 : if identifier J of current process > I then send the message to neighbours with identifier I Step 3 : else drop message with identifier I and send the message with identifier J to neighbours Step 4 : continue this process until a particular process receives back a message with its identifier. Step 5: if a process receives a message with its id then process= leader. Step 6: else return null Step 7:end Message Complexity: The best case time complexity is 2N-1. The process with largest id sends N messages and other N-1 processes send one message each. The algorithm is implemented using MPI and the message complexity and time complexity given by the MPI program is given in the table 2. No.of processes Messages Real time User time System time 5 9 1.189 0.024 0.023 10 19 1.299 0.027 0.024 15 29 1.412 0.029 0.026 20 39 1.531 0.033 0.028 25 49 1.650 0.036 0.031 Table 2:Robert Changs Best Case Algorithm The worst case time complexity is N(N+1)/2. The process with largest id sends N messages and other N-1 processes send messages from 1à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦N-1. No.of processes Messages Real time User time System time 5 15 1.186 0.024 0.023 10 55 1.301 0.027 0.025 15 120 1.414 0.030 0.027 20 210 2.511 0.034 0.029 25 325 1.654 0.035 0.030 Table 3: Robert Changs Worst Case Algorithm 4. Bidirectional Ring Algorithms 4.1 Leader election algorithm for Bidirectional Ring In these bidirectional ring algorithm messages can be sent or exchanged in any direction. We have used the algorithm mentioned in [2] An improved upperbound for distributed election in bidirectional rings of processors. J.Van Leeumen and R.B Tan. Distributed Computing(1987)2:149-160 for implementing it with the MPI. The name (identifier) of a large processor is contained in the register ID which is maintained by the processor and a (Boolean) register DIR that has a direction on the ring in which there are processors that still have a smaller processor up for election. A smaller candidate which is still alive when the messages( the ones having the name of a Large candidate) are created, have them being sent out in its direction. Processors that begin a chase are known as active, and the left over processors are observant. To get rid of the smaller candidate and force agreement on the larger candidate is the main idea behind a chase. After the current active processors have begun the chase, the observant processors basically relay messages onwards unless they notice an unusual situation on the ring only. As the algorithm proceeds, there are two unusual situations that can arise at the location of an observant processor. They are (i) The processor receives a message of the current phase, say through its left link, that contains a value which is less than the current value in its ID register. The processor turns active, increments its phase number by 1, and initiates a chase with the value its current ID in the direction of the message that was received, i.e., out over its left link. (ii) Two messages of the same phase are received by the processor from opposite directions. The processor turns active, increments its phase number by 1, and initiates a chase with the largest value contained in the two messages in the direction of the smallest. As the algorithm proceeds, several active processors that can arise in a phase rapidly decreases, and at the end a single processor will be left precisely. This processor will be familiar that it receives two messages of the same phase from opposite directions that hold same values and is elected because either it receives a message of the current phase with a value exactly alike to the one it sent out (and stored in its ID register) or it receives two messages of the same phase from opposite directions that hold same values. ALGORITHM [2]: The algorithm describes the actions of an arbitrary processor on a bidirectional ring with half-duplex links as required for electing a leader 1) Initialization a) Let u be the executing processors identification number. Send message to both neighbors and phase number Pnum:=0; b) Wait for corresponding messages and to come in from two neighbors c) Compare u1 and u2 and set ID to max(u1,u2)and Dir to the min(u1,u2) and goto Active state else Observant state. 2) Election A processor performs in either active or observant state. a) Active A processor enters the active state with some value v stored in its ID register and a phase number p. The phase number p is either stored in Pnum or it is an update stored in temporary register. The phase number Pnum is incremented by 1 and a message is sent in Dir direction and goes to observant state. b) Observant In this state a processor receives messages and passes them on, unless an unusual situation is observed that enables it to initiate a new phase. Receive messages from one or both directions. Discard any message received with p less than Pnum. i) If the number of messages left are zero then go to observant state. ii) If the number of messages left is one then { Let the one message received be where necessarily p>=PNUM.} if p=PNUM then v = ID:goto inaugurate; v DIR:= direction from which the message was received; goto active state v > ID:begin goto observant else PNUM = p; ID =:v; DIR:=the direction in which the message was going Send message to direction DIR; goto observant iii) If the number of messages left is one then{Let the two messages received be and ,necessarily from opposite directions and with p>=PNUM} if v1=v2 Pnum := p; goto inaugurate else v1!=v2; ID:-=max(v1,v2); DIR:=the direction of min(v1,v2); goto active 3) Inauguration A transfer to this final phase occurs when the algorithm terminates and the ID register contains the identity of the unique leader. Message complexity: The message complexity of the bidirectional algorithm is 1.44NlogN + O(N). MPI is used implementing the algorithm. The Time and message complexity given by the MPI program is No.of processes Messages Real time User time System time 5 14 1.186 0.024 0.022 10 29 1.302 0.027 0.024 15 44 1.417 0.030 0.026 20 59 1.534 0.033 0.028 25 74 1.661 0.036 0.030 Table 4: Leader election algorithm for Bidirectional Ring 4.2 Leader election algorithm for Mobile Adhoc Networks A mobile ad hoc network is dynamic in nature. It is composed of a set of peer-to-peer nodes, that exchanges the information within the network through some wireless channels directly or through a series of such links. A node is independent to move around as there is no fixed final topology. The nodes move freely in a geographical area and are loosely bounded by the transmission range of these wireless channels. Within its transmission range, a mobile node communicates with a set of nodes thus implying all of them have to be in a network. These set of nodes are also known as the neighbors of the communicating node. The mobile nodes act as intermediary routers to direct the packets between the source and the destination nodes (i.e., the set of neighbors). A node is designated as a leader to coordinate the information that needs to be exchanged among nodes and to be in charge of their data requirements. The identification problem of a leader is termed as the leader election problem. Why do we need to select this leader? When the nodes are set out, they form an adhoc network between them within which the whole communication happens. If the topology of the network changes dynamically, a node may suspend its communication with the previous node, just like in distributed networks. So there has risen a need for a leader so that the maintenance of the network and the clock synchronization within it can be done. Also a new leader has to be chosen every time the members of the group are getting updated while communication is taking place. When the communicating nodes move freely and if they are not within the transmission range of each other, then the wireless network fails . Similarly the formation of wireless links happen only when the nodes which are separated and are too far and to communicate, move within the transmission range of one another. The network topology may change rapidly and unpredictably over time since the nodes are mobile. So developing efficient distributed algorithm for adhoc networks is a challenging work to be done. The largest identity node is chosen to be the leader using minimum wireless messages in this approach. A mobile ad hoc network can be considered as a static network with frequent link or node failures, which can be thought of as a mobile node of an adhoc network going out of reach. To cover all the nodes in the network we use the diameter concept. While distance is described as the shortest path between the nodes, diameter is defined as the longest distance between any two nodes in the network. The number of hops will be the taken for measuring the distance and the assumption is that the network becomes stable after a change happens during leader election process and there are only a limited number of changes in the network. A network having N nodes are considered here. Since the topological changes are considered during the leader election, this algorithm takes more than diameter rounds to terminate. If however, the topological changes are not considered diameter rounds are taken to elect the leader. We have used the algorithm mentioned in [3]An Efficient Leader Election Algorithm for Mobile Adhoc Networks Pradeep Parvathipuram1, Vijay Kumar1, and Gi-Chul Yang2 for implementing it with the MPI. Leader Election Each node propagates its unique identifier to its neighbors and a maximum identifier is elected as a leader in every round. This maximum identifier is propagated in the subsequent rounds. All the rounds need to be synchronized. idlist (i) identifies identifier list for node i, which consists of all the neighbors for node i. Lid(i) =max(idlist(i)) Termination At (rounds >= diameter), for each node i, If all identifiers in idlist are the same(i) the node i stops sending the maximum identifier further and chooses the maximum identifier in the idlist(i) as the leader. The algorithm gets terminated if for each node i the elements in idlist (for each node) are the same. The termination may not be at the final part of the diameter rounds, If all identifiers in the idlist as the leader. ALGORITHM [3]: Each node i in the network has two components a) idlist identifier list b) Lid(i) leader id of node i. 1) Each node say node i transmits its unique identifier in the first round and Lid(i) in the subsequent rounds to their neighbors and all these ids will be stored in idlist. Lid(i) = max (idlist(i)); 2) A unique leader is elected in diameter rounds, if there are no topological changes in the network. The algorithm is modified to incorporate topological changes in between the rounds and below is the description of how the algorithm is modified. Case 1: If a node has no outgoing links then lid(i) = i; Case 2: If a node leaves between the rounds, then the neighbors would know this. Suppose node i leaves the network after round r and let its neighbors be j and k. neighbors of i (i.e. j, k). 1) Delete (ilist, idlist(j k)) // delete ilist from idlist ilist contains the group of identifiers that node i has sent to its neighbors before round r along with i The ilist information is also deleted from all the neighbors of j and k if the ilist identifiers have been propagated in the previous rounds. This process continues until all the nodes in the network are covered. 2) Repeat while (round > = diameter), // Termination condition Compare all the identifiers present in idlist(i) for each node i. If all the identifiers in idlist(i) are equal, node i stops propagating its maximum identifier and elects the maximum identifier as the leader. Case 3: If a new node i joins the network in between the rounds say round r then the neighbors will update its idlist. 1) If neighbors of i say node j is the neighbor for node i. Add (i,idlist(j));The normal algorithm continues (the ids are propagated), nodes keep exchanging the information till diameter rounds. 2) Repeat while (round > = diameter),For all nodes in the network (node j) receives an identifier i at diameter round. IF i is greater than the maximum identifier node j has propagated in the previous round (diameter-1). a) Propagate node i to all the neighbors of j. b) Also propagate the node i information to all the neighbors of neighbors i until the whole network is covered, if the above condition satisfies. Else do not propagate the information to nodes in the network i) Compare all the identifiers present in idlist(i) If all the identifiers in idlist(i) are equal, node i stops propagating its maximum identifier and elects the maximum identifier as the leader. ii) All nodes in the network follow this process and a unique leader is elected connected component. The time taken for the algorithm to elect a leader will be O (diam + Άt) where Άt is the time taken for all the nodes to converge and Άt depends on the topology changes. Message complexity The message complexity of this algorithm depends on the number of rounds. In each round it sends 2N messages if we consider a ring topology as every node has 2 neighbors. So message complexity is 2N* No. of rounds. This algorithm is implemented using MPI and the message complexity and time complexity given by the MPI program is No.of processes Messages Real time User time System time 5 30 1.187 0.023 0.022 10 120 1.301 0.026 0.024 15 240 1.421 0.030 0.027 20 440 1.541 0.032 0.029 25 650 1.752 0.037 0.031 Table 5: Leader Election Algorithm for Mobile Adhoc Networks 5. Simulations Message Complexity with respect to number of processes Time No.of Messages Transferred Sno Algorithm N=5 N=10 N=15 N=20 N=25 N=5 N=10 N=15 N=20 N=25 1 LeLanns 1.195 1.292 1.446 1.551 1.654 25 100 225 400 625 2 Chang Roberts 1.189 1.299 1.412 1.531 1.65 9 19 29 39 49 3 Bidirectional Ring 1.186 1.302 1.417 1.534 1.661 14 29 44 59 74 4 MobileAdhoc 1.187 1.301 1.421 1.541 1.752 30 120 240 440 650The message and time complexity of each of these 4 algorithms for different number of processes is implemented in our programs and the results are as shown in table 6. All the above simulations are plotted on the graph so as to analyze the way different algorithms message complexity varies with the number of processes on which it executes. 6. Conclusions Table 6: Simulation ResultsComparing the results, we can conclude that the Lelanns algorithm is the most fundamental algorithm and requires large number of message exchanges among the four algorithms. Changs and Robert algorithm made considerable changes to Lelanns algorithm however in the worst case that algorithm also requires O(N2). For leader election in ring topology these are the two unidirectional algorithms that are to be considered. The bidirectional algorithm requires less messages than the worst case Changs and Roberts algorithm. It requires O(N logN) messages. It takes less time to discover the leader when compared to unidirectional algorithms since the messages are sent in both the directions. The final algorithm is put into effect for mobile adhoc networks and is run in many rounds. The messages complexity depends on number of rounds. It guarantees that there is only one leader at a time but however it handles the partition in the network and requires more number of messages .

Difficulty Writing an essay at Tertiary Level -- English Writing

Writing an essay at Tertiary level is an extremely difficult process. â€Æ' Introduction The ability to write a quality piece of writing at the tertiary level is a procedure that does not come easily. As mentioned in Marshall and Rowland (2006, p.195).the complexity of developing a style of writing that is personal and academic while processing and developing thoughts and concepts into a presentable piece of academic writing can be a daunting process ( myself included ). This essay will discuss some of the barriers a student may experience during their writing experience. The development of research and reading skills in their approach to learning and difficulties a student may experience due to procrastination and consequently questioning the usefulness of the essay as a learning tool. Motivation and Reasoning â€Å"For many students essay-writing is the bane of their lives. They question the usefulness of essays, make heavy weather of writing them, and generally try to put them off for as long as they can get away with it†(Rowntree,D. 1974, p.65). In this quote from Rowntree the discussion is over the initial process, the assimilation of ideas and knowledge. Most students would agree that the most difficult part of the process is to organise ideas and concepts into words on paper, especially words that they feel to convey their thoughts as Barnett, cited in Marshall and Rowland (2006, p.145).mentions. The question does need to be asked ‘Who (or what) am I writing this essay for?’Marshall and Rowland (2006, p92).argue that we write only for our tutor or lecturer as a means to assess our scholarly efforts. I disagree with this and would side with the view from Rowntree (1974, p65).that the written essay make... ...r Conclusion Essays are not an easy task, but they can be a task over which the student has the most control. Importantly, the written essay teaches a student to think by giving them skills to analyse a topic systematically and communicate their thoughts about the topic in a logical way. Essays are about learning and showing proof of the research effort, your knowledge and your depth of understanding of a topic. References Marshall, L. and Rowland,F. (2006). A Guide to Learning Independently. Malaysia: Pearson Education Australia. Orr, F. (1992). Writing essays. In Study skills for successful students. North Sydney: Allen and Unwin. Pauk, W. (1969). The research paper,Time and technique. Journal of Reading 13. Reprinted as Scholarly writing: A case study. , p.25-32. Rowntree, D. (1974). How to Write Essays. London: MacDonald.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Is Odysseus a Hero? Essay -- Homer, Odyssey Essays

Throughout the epic, Odysseus is portrayed by his friends and peers as a magnificent man, a godlike figure. But, throughout the journeys of The Odyssey, Odysseus’ true character shows. Heroes are no exception to human nature; all people tend to act differently in public than in private. A commonly accepted definition of a hero is, â€Å"a man of distinguished courage or ability, admired for his brave deeds and noble qualities.† Odysseus has not shown the noble characteristics of a hero by acting cowardly, barbaric, selfish and greedy in certain situations; such qualities do not deserve such a title. To be a hero, you must have a noble and courageous purpose. As The Odyssey moves along, Odysseus is revealed not to be a hero through his ignoble acts. Homer uses the character of Odysseus to depict false morality which undermines the concept of his heroism. A main reason why Odysseus is not a hero is because he manipulated the truth and achieved his victories through lies. Achilles, the hero from the Iliad explains his thoughts on the matter, â€Å"I hate that man like the very Gates of Death / who says one thing but hides another in his heart† (Knox, 37). Bernard Knox who wrote the introduction to the Odyssey explains how Odysseus prides himself on his ability to cover and manipulate the truth. Bernard also says, â€Å"He will gladly employ deceit to win victory† (Knox, 38). A hero is a man of honor with a noble purpose and heart, but Odysseus has neither. The main characteristics of a hero are that they can do heroic things, but retain their nobility. If we sacrifice the truth for progress then we are no better than the monsters that we fight. Lying and cheating to get things done is wrong and usually has bad consequences. Another reaso... ...did not fight with morals. As Odysseus is killing the suitors he explained how he hated the fact that they had drained his estate and courted his wife. â€Å"’You dogs! You never imagined I’d return from Troy - so cocksure that you bled my house to death, ravished my serving-woman - wooed my wife behind my back while I was still alive!†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (Homer, 22.36-39). What is very interesting about this line is that the first thing that he accused the suitors of was using up his estate. This line is also very important because the last crime he charged against them was the wooing of his wife. This line proves that Odysseus cares more about his wealth than even his family. No hero should care that much about personal possessions. Based on the facts that Odysseus cares more about himself and that he has no moral code I strongly believe that he should not be given the title of hero.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Deluded Pursuit in Christopher Marlowes Doctor Faustus :: Doctor Faustus Essays

Deluded Pursuit in Christopher Marlowe's Doctor Faustus Although Christopher Marlowe's Doctor Faustus has outclassed every one at Wittenberg with his academic studies, he is "still but Faustus, a man." Proud of his accomplishments, he desires to become a superman. His judgment clouded by the sin of his pride, he misunderstands his knowledge and dismisses the disciplines of medicine, philosophy, law, and divinity. He lusts for God's capability to "make men live eternally or being dead raise them to life again," believing the devil's arts of magic and necromancy can provide the power, honour, omnipotence and, most importantly, the wealth he craves. His deluded pursuit of the immediate pleasures such wealth can yield brings upon himself the risk of eternal damnation. By conjuring the devil, Faustus removes himself from the influence of the Holy Ghost and God's love, instigating attacks of despair, and internal conflicts as personified by the Good and Bad Angels. Faustus' hunger for immediate gratification suggests immense self-torment and self-denial. Weighing his options at each instant of time, he maximizes his pleasure and minimizes his pain, apparently discounting the implications of his decisions on his prospects and happiness in the future. Rebelling against God, he invites the devil's temptations, hoping to obtain an offer like Satan's to Jesus in the desert wilderness. One understands why Satan imputes an infinite value to Christ's soul. However, why does Faustus' soul warrant twenty-four years of service by Mephostophilis? Faustus, too, is a superior being. He consciously removes the yoke of academia, and exerts his free will. After freely entering into his contract with Lucifer, he repeatedly considers repenting. When he calls on Christ to help "save distressed Faustus' soul," the evil trinity of Lucifer, Belzebub, and Mephostophilis appear, possibly to tear him to pieces. Under duress, he vows, "never to name God or pray to him." However, with only one-half hour left on earth, he calls on God. Faustus, forever the horse trader, tries to strike a deal with God. He asks God, for Christ's sake and blood, to limit his time in hell from a thousand to a hundred thousand years.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

David Wilson’s Speech on Darwin’s Cathedral Essay

The speaker, David Sloan Wilson, believes that societies function as single organisms, and morality and religion biologically and culturally evolved adaptations that enable human groups to function as single units rather than an assortment of individual unites. His lecture was a poor attempt to explain group selection, which is selection for a characteristic specifically because the characteristics enhance the reproductive success of the group as a whole, rather than solely the individual. The beginning of his lecture was not very helpful in proving anything; he merely quoted several phrases from scientists and read them to the audience. I wasn’t really sure where he was going at this point. Then, he went on to explain examples or should I say a lack of examples, which he considered to undergo group selection. He allegedly did some sort of experiment with chickens and their eggs. He tried to say that under group selection the experiment showed that there was an increased production of all the chickens’ eggs. However, within a group selection only certain individuals benefited. There was also some weird twist in this experiment, he tried selecting for the best individuals and then put them all together in one cage, and they got violent with each other and de-feathered each other, while at the same time he used the best group of chickens together in the same cage that produced the most eggs as a group. Then, he compared the group of the best selected individuals with the best group, and somehow he tried to prove his point. I don’t really think anyone was convinced except for himself. It seemed like the only thing he tested for was who works the best in a cage, because that situation would never occur in nature. Another example of group selection according to him had to do with bees. But, once again he was most likely wrong because it appears that bee’s act according to kin selection, which is selection for characteristics that enhance the fitness of the individual indirectly by enhancing the reproductive success of the individual’s relatives, because all bees are related. There is only one female queen bee and the rest are workers who  have no choice, but to work like slaves for the benefit of the queen and its relatives. Then, at the end of the lecture someone posed a question about how could he explain the endosymbiotic theory according to group selection, I think this question may have stumped him, because whatever he said didn’t seem very convincing , but yet he tried to defend his point, even though the endosymbiotic theory seems to explained by many as a mutualistic relationship. He also tried to explain group selection in relation to religion. He attempted to demonstrate how religions have enabled people to achieve, by working as a unit, what they could have never done alone. Apparently, he examined specific examples of religious culture from Calvinism to Balinese water temples in hopes that his group selection theory would be confirmed, and somehow he supposedly did verify this. But all in all, I think he needs to attain more believable concrete research, and then present experiments that will clearly prove his point without too much doubt. If he wants people to buy into his theory of group selection he really needs more data to back his theory up with because I wasn’t really impressed with what I saw, most of it was really confusing, hard to sit through, hard to believe, and didn’t make much sense. He cant simply prove group selection through theory alone he needs more empirical data, so that he can prove to people he is right, instead of trying to convince us through babbling on and on about nothing, but I do give him credit for his speech. His answers and conclusions may not be correct, but at least he is questioning and examining things like a good scientist should do. He is obviously a firm believer in himself, and did put forth some thought and effort in trying to prove his theory and he demonstrated some real courage by trying to go outside of his own field of evolutionary biology into matters of religion and trying to connect the two. Even though his book may not prove his theory of group selection, the controversial title should make him a lot of money. Group selection is selection for a characteristic specifically because the characteristics enhances the reproductive success of the group as a whole. Kin selection is selection for characteristics that enhance the fitness of the individual indirectly by enhancing the reproductive success of the individuals relatives.

Friday, August 16, 2019

I am Dina Maqdadi and I am not your traditional student

I am Dina Maqdadi, an eager student with hopes of being accepted in a law school, a mother to a fifteen month old boy and currently undergoing a high risk pregnancy due on the first of January. As of now, I am in one of the most uncomfortable situations a student could be in: The dilemma of being a young mother.I am also in one of the most challenging scenarios a mother could be in: The challenge of being a single parent.Being a single mother is truly a brave task set for me especially because I have many goals in life. I must learn to set aside personal interests. I must learn to be responsible for my welfare and be even more responsible for the welfare of others, my children.I have learned these things. I have learned to look at things positively and I have learned to do everything to make my goals attainable.I am a real estate agent with backgrounds in engineering and real estate. I have been exposed to different people with different stories. I have learned that though I am alrea dy a mother, I should not let my hopes die. Thus, I have made a decision to study law particularly intellectual property law.I am a mother and I should be good at making the right decisions for the good of my children. They serve as my inspiration to fulfill these dreams because by doing such, I am not only securing a bright future for myself but also of my children.As new opportunities decrease due to the high qualifications, it is hard for me, a single parent, to provide the necessities of my children. It is in this light that I request that you consider my admission to your law school to be competent in today’s world. By letting me study in your law school, you open to me a future that I can shape.I am not saying these for you to take pity on me I sat these because it is the truth. By accepting me, you have not only made a difference in my life but also to my children as well. By considering me as a student you will help me and my children make our dreams into realities.Th ank you and Godbless

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Marketing Communication Strategies for Kudler Fine Foods

Marketing Communication Strategies While Kudler Fine Foods (KFF) will offer similar products both domestically and internationally, the marketing communication strategies will be both similar and different amongst its regional interests. By understanding the comparing and contrasting of the KFF market strategies in the United States, as well as overseas, effective marketing communication can be determined and utilized. Comparison Considering the company’s expansion to both Canada and England, one obvious similarity, is that there will be no language barrier.Although phrases and slang may differ, for the most part, the labeling and promoting will be understandable by all countries. Language barriers can often be a struggle for international businesses, but in this case, interpreting market trends and consumer wants will be easier to help design effective marketing strategies. Likewise, KFF will meet competition in both domestic and international markets, which affects how commu nication strategies will change based on market needs.Competition will determine whether or not KFF will maintain its superiority in the domestic market and its success in the new international markets, (â€Å"Difference Between Domestic And International Marketing†,  2013). Contrast Similarly, the types of competitors and how to combat each situation will differ with the domestic and international marketing communication. For starters, KFF already has a foothold in the domestic market, whereas they are just entering a new market internationally. In this case, internationally market communication is more complex and requires more financial resources, time, effort, and contains higher risk.Differently, the audience will change between domestic and internationally consumers. Understanding the cultural differences and market demands are the highest priority. In this way, how a product is marketed will change amongst the regional locations. Also the laws that govern each countr y may affect what can be marketed and how. It is essential to understanding all business laws that pertain to KFF during the planning phase. Last, another noticeable difference is the budget amount for marketing in domestic and international strategies.The budget is smaller for the domestic marketing, because KFF already has a reputation built and already has the necessary marketing in place. However, internationally, the marketing requires building. In this way, the budget for marketing strategies will be higher, (â€Å"Difference Between Domestic And International Marketing†,  2013). Reference: Difference Between Domestic and International Marketing. (2013). Retrieved from http://www. differencebetween. net/business/difference-between-domestic-and-international-marketing/